FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE (Originally posted November 3, 2016 by Chris Lugo)
(ROSEMONT, ILLINOIS) – The Cavaliers Drum & Bugle Corps is pleased to announce the 2017 Percussion Team, under the direction of Michael McIntosh (Arranger/Caption Supervisor) and Joe Hobbs (Caption Head).
"As we continue to mature and develop our educational team, the goal is to provide the highest level of information and experience for the members of The Cavaliers’ percussion section,” said McIntosh.
"I believe this team, with their mix of experience and talent, will continue to help us evolve as a caption. With this group of educators in front of our performers, I feel I can write anything and it will come to life!”
This percussion news builds on the The Cavaliers' recently released design team and caption leadership announcements.
Joe Hobbs, who returns for his third year leading the caption, is pleased with the mix of educators on his team, which includes seven teachers who have been either a caption head or a coordinator for a top 12 drum corps.
"Continuity is huge with any drum corps staff, and I'm so thrilled to have maintained the bulk of our 2016 team,” said Hobbs. "With quality teachers from all facets of education––high school, college, and drum corps––I truly believe we have one of the most experienced and diverse instructional teams in DCI today.”
Hobbs highlighted the the addition of Jesse Backes and Jack Holway, both Cavalier alumni who performed during The Cavaliers’ 2011 season and the Fred Sanford award-winning percussion ensemble.
"Jesse has had a huge role in the success of Cavaliers Indoor Percussion and was recently the battery coordinator with the Phantom Regiment. With the addition of Jesse, we are thrilled to create a stronger a connection between the incredible teaching going on with Cavaliers Indoor and The Cavaliers Drum & Bugle Corps. Jack was part of Music City Mystique in 2011 and is currently the battery coordinator with Franklin High School in Franklin, Tenn."
The full battery staff includes Rick Rodriguez, Kevin Welborn, Jesse Backes, Eric Ridenour, Nick Beaudet, Jack Holway, Russell Wharton, Julian White, and Jamì Fennell.
Front ensemble educators include Alan Miller (Arranger), Rob Pastor, Andrew Lynge, and Erick Eckstrom, with Tom McGillen (Sound Engineer) and Jason Palmer (Percussion Choreographer) rounding out the veteran team.
“We are incredibly fortunate to have this team creating an unmatched experience for our performers and audiences in 2017,” Hobbs added.
Click here to see announced Staff overview.
The Cavaliers are preparing to hold auditions in Dallas/Ft Worth, Atlanta, Chicago, and Austin for the upcoming 2017 season. More information about our auditions can be found by visiting AUDITION.cavaliers.org.
About Michael McIntosh
Michael McIntosh is a graduate of Butler University earning a Bachelor of Arts degree in Music with an emphasis in Composition.
In addition to freelance composing and digital sound design, Michael is the Percussion Coordinator for the Music For All Summer Symposium. He is the Percussion Caption Supervisor and one of two percussion designers for The Cavaliers Drum & Bugle Corps. In 2011, The Cavaliers were the recipients of the DCI Fred Sanford High Percussion award. From 1997-2011, Mr. McIntosh was a percussion specialist at Carmel High School in Carmel, Ind., and part of a program named the 2001 AAA National Champion, and the 2005 and 2012 BOA Grand National Champions.
Mr. McIntosh is an active clinician and WGI adjudicator, giving clinics throughout the U.S., Europe, Japan, and China.
Compositionally, Michael has had works commissioned for the Midwest Band Directors Convention as well as the West Point HellCats. Currently, he has works published by SmartMusic, Row-Loff Publications, Yamaha Sounds of Summer, Tap Space Publications, Key Poulan Music, Drop 6 Media, The Hal Leonard Corporation, Innovative Percussion, Marching Show Concepts and Dynamic Marching.
Michael is a Yamaha artist/clinician as well as a signature drumstick artist with Innovative Percussion. Mr. McIntosh also endorses EVANS drumheads, Zildjian Cymbals, and Planet Waves Cables.
About Joe Hobbs
Joe Hobbs is currently the Director of Percussion at Vandegrift High school in Austin, Texas. Joe is responsible for the Drum Line, percussion ensemble and also over sees all percussion responsibilities at Four Points Middle School in Austin, Texas. Vandegrift is a consistent BOA regional finalist and was the Texas State 5A Silver medalist in 2015. Joe was previously the director of percussion at Newman Smith High School in Carrollton, Texas. Under his direction the Newman Smith drum line was recognized as one of DFW’s strongest drum lines having won both the Plano Drum Line Contest as well as the Lone Star Drum Line Contest. Joe previously held the same position at Harpeth High School in Nashville, Tenn., where under his direction Harpeth was a Scholastic Open finalist at WGI Championships in 2009 and 2010, placing 4th in 2010. Harpeth also won multiple WGI regionals as well as SCGC championships.
Joe currently serves as the percussion caption head for The Cavaliers Drum & Bugle Corps from Rosemont, Ill. Joe took over the caption head position in 2015 after having joined the snare staff in 2014. Before joining The Cavaliers, Joe served on the percussion staff for the Phantom Regiment Drum and Bugle Corps from Rockford, Ill., and Spirit of Atlanta Drum and Bugle Corps from Atlanta, Ga., where he was the battery caption head 2008-2010. Joe was also involved with Music City Mystique as a battery instructor from 2009 to 2011.
He was a member of Southwind Drum and Bugle Corps from 2001-2003. During his time at Southwind, he was named the 2003 DCI I&E Snare drum champion. From 2004-2006 Joe was a member of The Cavaliers’ snare line. During his time with The Cavaliers, Joe won two DCI World Championships, the 2006 DCI I&E mixed ensemble championship, and in 2006 he was awarded the “Cavalier of the Year” and Zildjian awards.
Joe received his Music Education degree from Murray State University in Murray, Ky. Other teaching experience includes: George Rogers Clark High School, Southwind Drum and Bugle Corps, Murray State University, Austin Peay State University, and Mt. Juliet High School.
Joe is endorsed by Pearl Drums, Innovative Percussion, and Evans Drumheads. Joe and his wife Kara and their Great Dane “Truman” currently live in Austin, Texas.
About Alan Miller
Alan Miller currently lives in the Denton, Texas where he serves as Program Coordinator, Wind and Percussion Arranger, and Assistant Percussion Director for Guyer High School. He also works as an arranger for many band programs and indoor percussion ensembles throughout the country.
Alan is currently one of two percussion arrangers/composers for The Cavaliers Drum & Bugle Corps, where he has been teaching the front ensemble since 2002 and was the staff coordinator for the corps from 2012 to 2015.
Alan is currently the sole arranger/composer for Cavaliers Indoor Percussion (formerly Green Thunder Percussion), a WGI Independent World Class finalist. Prior to that, he served as Music Director for Metro Alliance Indoor (2005-2007) and as the front ensemble arranger for Gateway Percussion (2012).
Alan has arranged both battery and pit music for several Texas state marching band finalist bands including Coppell High School, Dripping Springs High School and Flower Mound High School. Alan has also arranged for groups outside of Texas and has presented clinics throughout much of the United States, as well as in Japan.
Alan attended and received his bachelor's degree from West Texas A & M University, where he studied percussion with Dr. Susan Tariq and conducting with Dr. Gary Garner.
Alan is an Innovative Percussion educational artist and is published through Tapspace and Drop6.
About Rick Rodriguez
Rick Rodriguez holds a Bachelor’s degree in Music Education from the University of North Texas. He is currently percussion director and associate band director at Cedar Ridge High School in Austin, Texas.
Rick currently assists the wind ensembles and is director Cedar Ridge Jazz Ensemble as well as the Cedar Ridge percussion program. Since the early 90’s Mr Rod and his percussion ensembles have been fortunate enough to have several appearances in various settings at the Midwest Band and Orchestra Clinic in Chicago, Ill. The Spring Percussion Ensemble was scouted by John Paynter in 1994 and was invited to perform with the North Shore Concert Band of Chicago at Northwestern University. Rick’s latest Cedar Ridge Percussion Ensemble had also performed at the Midwest Clinic with the Cedar Ridge Low Brass Choir and the Cedar Ridge Percussion Ensemble was also staged at the Texas Music Educators Association in San Antonio, Texas.
In his younger days Rick was the “center snare” of the infamous UNT PASIC Drum Line and was also a snare drummer and staff member of the Concord Blue Devils Drum and Bugle Corps. Rick has also been on staff with Blue Devils, Phantom Regiment, Blue Knights, and The Cavaliers Drum & Bugle Corps. He has also been adjudicator for Drum Corps International (DCI) and the percussion panel of Winter Guard International (WGI).
About Kevin Welborn
Kevin Welborn is currently the director of bands for the Clinton Public School District in Clinton, Miss. He holds a bachelor’s and master’s degree in music education from the University of Southern Mississippi, where he studied under Dr. Thomas Fraschillo and Dr. John Wooton. Kevin has taught in Mississippi and Texas, and he has had the opportunity to adjudicate and give clinics to various middle schools, high schools, and colleges/universities throughout the Southeast.
A member of the 1999 Carolina Crown Drum and Bugle Corps and the 2001 Santa Clara Vanguard Drum and Bugle Corps, he played snare drum for both organizations. Kevin served as the percussion caption head for the Troopers Drum and Bugle Corps from 2009 to 2012. Prior to that, he served as a percussion staff member for the Troopers in 2007 and 2008, as well as Memphis Sound Drum and Bugle corps in 2004 and 2005. Staring in the fall of 2009, Kevin was named an assistant band director at Clinton, serving as the full - time director of percussion.
Clinton Percussion would grow to become a nationally recognized percussion program, being awarded the Silver medal in the 2013 WGI Scholastic A Class World Championships, the Gold medal in the 2014 WGI Scholastic Open Class World Championships, and a 10th place finalist in the 2015 WGI World Class World Championships.
Kevin was named Director of Bands for the Clinton Public School District in 2015 and is in his second year of that position. He lives in Clinton with his beautiful wife, Karen. This will be his second year on staff with The Cavaliers.
About Jesse Backes
Jesse Backes is an active percussion instructor and arranger in the Chicago area, and he is very excited to join The Cavaliers' 2017 percussion staff as a snare technician.
Jesse has been the Battery Coordinator at Cavaliers Indoor Percussion since 2015 and a snare technician with CIP and Green Thunder Percussion since 2012. He was on the percussion staff with Phantom Regiment from 2014-16.
Jesse is the percussion specialist and battery arranger at the 32- time BOA Grand National finalist Marian Catholic HS and the percussion director and arranger at Batavia HS. He is an active teacher and clinician with other high schools and universities around Chicago and is an adjudicator for the Illinois Music Educators Association.
As a performer, Jesse was a snare drummer with The Cavaliers Drum & Bugle Corps from 2011 to 2013. In 2011, he was a part of The Cavaliers' Fred Sanford Award-winning percussion section and he spent his final season with The Cavaliers in the roles of both snare drum section leader and drum sergeant. Jesse finished his career with the corps by performing as part of their clinic at the 2013 PAS International Convention. He also performed as a member of Green Thunder Percussion from 2007 to 2009, Colts Drum Corps in 2010, and Gateway Indoor Percussion in 2011. Jesse has performed as a concert percussionist at the Midwest clinic and internationally in Germany and the Czech Republic.
Jesse is proud to endorse Innovative Percussion.
About Eric Ridenour
Eric Ridenour is currently beginning his 8th year on staff with The Cavaliers Drum & Bugle Corps. Eric was a marching member of the Blue Knights Drum & Bugle Corps from 2001 to 2002; a member of the Blue Knights Indoor Percussion Ensemble from 1999 to 2003 and 2005; and a member of the Santa Clara Vanguard Drum & Bugle Corps in 2004. He was also a staff member of the Blue Knights Indoor Percussion Ensemble (2005-2008); Bluecoats Drum & Bugle Corps (2006-2008), and Monarch Independent (2015).
Eric was a clinician in 2006 and 2007 at the PAS International Convention, and he is proud to be an educational artist for both Evans Drumheads and Innovative Percussion.
About Nick Beaudet
Nick Beaudet is originally from the Dallas/Fort Worth area and has been involved with performing and teaching since high school. He has a Bachelor of Music Education degree from the University of Texas at Arlington where he studied percussion under Dr. Michael Varner and Jim Yakas. During his time at UTA, he performed in groups such as the Wind Symphony, Percussion Ensemble, Symphony Orchestra, African/Brazilian Ensemble, Jazz, Latin Jazz, and various marching ensembles. In 2015, Nick completed his Graduate Degree in Music Performance at Texas A&M University Commerce studying under Dr. Brian Zator.
In 2008, Nick was grateful for the opportunity to march tenors with The Cavaliers Drum & Bugle Corps and then to serve as a section leader during his age out year in 2009. Nick has had the privilege of teaching as a tenor technician since 2010 and is in his eighth year on The Cavaliers' instructional staff for the 2017 season. During his time with the organization, he has also served as a visual instructor for percussion.
Nick has been happy to serve as a tenor instructor in the WGI side of percussion at ViP, Vigilantes Indoor Percussion, where he is currently in his fifth season on staff. Over the last several years, Nick has taken part as a performer with various groups such as Six Flags Over Texas, the Dallas Cowboys Rhythm and Blue Drumline, the Dallas Mavericks Drumline, and the Cutting Edge Haunted House Drumline in Fort Worth.
Nick assisted teaching at Plano East Senior High School as a percussion instructor from 2007 to 2013 and was the Associate Director of Bands at McMillen High School from 2011 through 2013. In 2014-2015, he served as an Associate Director of Bands at Grapevine High School and is now in his second year as Assistant Director of Bands and Director of Percussion at Colleyville Heritage High School.
Nick is an endorser of Innovative Percussion and Remo products.
About Jack Holway
Jack Holway was a member of The Cavaliers' tenor line in 2010 and aging out in 2011. Before joining The Cavaliers, Jack was also in the tenor line of the Crossmen Drum and Bugle Corps.
In 2011, Jack was a member of the WGI World Champion Music City Mystique. Since ageing out of DCI, Jack has been an active instructor and clinician throughout the Southeast.
Jack currently lives in Nashville, Tenn., and is the Battery coordinator at Franklin High School located in Franklin, Tenn.
About Russell Wharton
Russell Wharton is a percussionist based in the Bloomington, Ind. area and is currently attending Indiana University as a graduate student. Russell has been a bass drum instructor for The Cavaliers Drum & Bugle Corps since 2015, and he was a member of the bass line from 2008 through 2012.
Other marching percussion teaching experience includes Monarch Independent Percussion, Boston Crusaders, and numerous Texas high school programs.
Russell completed his undergraduate studies at Texas Christian University in 2013. Notable performances with TCU include a Showcase Concert at the 2011 PASIC with the Percussion Orchestra; Carnegie Hall with the Wind Symphony; and the 2011 Rose Bowl with the Marching Band and Drumline. Russell can also be heard on the TCU Jazz Ensemble album "Midnight Voyage," and the recent TCU Percussion Orchestra album "Prelude to Paradise."
From 2013 to 2016, he was a percussion instructor for Keller High School in Keller, Texas, and he has served as a clinician and instructor for programs all across Texas. Russell proudly endorses Innovative Percussion sticks and mallets, and his compositions are published through Tapspace Publications.
About Julian Whit
Julian White was born and raised in Memphis, Tenn., where he still resides. He received a B.A. in History form the University of Memphis in 2012 and is currently working towards a Masters in the Arts of Teaching.
Julian has worked with several groups in the Memphis area, including Central High School, Olive Branch High School, Cordova High School, and he is currently teaches at Arlington High School. Julian was a five-year member of Mighty Sound of the South from 2007 to 2011, where he played snare, and was the bass, tenors, and battery section leader.
He is a former member of the corps formerly know as the Memphis Sound Drum and Bugle Corps. Julian is also in his seventh season with Gateway Indoor: three as a marching member and his fourth season as a member of the Gateway Indoor staff.
Julian is a former marching member of The Cavaliers Drum an&d Bugle Corps where he is excited to return for his third season as a part of The Cavaliers' percussion team. When he isn’t teaching percussion ensembles, Julian can be found teaching mathematics and engineering at the STEAM Academy, a local optional school in Memphis that focuses on mathematics, science, and the arts.
About Jami' Fennell
Jami' Fennell is originally from Walterboro, S.C., and he attended Western Carolina University where he studied percussion with Dr. Mario Gaetano. While attending WCU he performed in the percussion, jazz, wind and gamelan ensembles. He was also a member of the Pride of the Mountains Marching band where he served as the section leader and was Most Outstanding Performer for the 2001 season.
Jami' was a member of the Spirit of Atlanta Drum and Bugle Corps from 1999 to 2001, and in 2001 he was named Most Outstanding Performer. Jami’ also attended Jacksonville State University where he studied with Clint Gillespie and Tracy Tyler. While attending JSU, he was a member of the Marching Southerners and the JSU PASIC line, and was the 2003 Most Outstanding Performer.
Jami' holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in music from JSU. He has worked with several high schools throughout the south including Kennesaw Mountain, and Lassiter. For two years, Jami' lived in Birmingham and was a member of the Doublestoppercussion team along with founders Sean Womack and Brad Palmer. From 2003 to 2010, Jami' served on the staff of the Spirit of Atlanta Drum and Bugle Corps. Then from 2011 to 2013, he served on the staff of The Cavaliers, winning the Fred Sanford award for High percussion in 2011.
Currently, Jami' resides in Atlanta, Ga., where he is the percussion coordinator and battery arranger for the Georgia State University Marching Band. The GSU Panther Band is in its seventh year of existence and has performed in the Macy’s Thanksgiving day Parade and the 57th Presidential Inaugural parade. He also serves as the assistant percussion director and battery arranger at McEachern High School.
Jami’ is excited to return to The Cavaliers for the 2017 season.
About Rob Pastor
Rob Pastor is returning for his 10th year of teaching The Cavaliers' front ensemble. His previous marching experience includes seven years as a member of Music City Mystique, one year with The Blue Devils Drum and Bugle Corps, and three years with The Cavaliers. He was fortunate enough to be a part of four world championships during that time.
Rob was a part of the small ensemble champion of Pasic in 2003 from MTSU, as well as the large ensemble marching champion in 2004. During his time as a member of The Cavaliers, Rob won two ensemble championships and placed second in the solo competition in 2006. Rob has been teaching the front ensemble at Music City Mystique since 2007.
He has taught at various high schools in the Nashville area including Harpeth, McGavock, Father Ryan, and Mt.Juliet High School. In addition, he has performed various clinics and master classes on front ensemble techniques in Tennessee, Florida, Indiana, and Kentucky
About Andrew Lyng
Andrew Lynge is currently an Adjunct Percussion Instructor at Texas A&M University-Commerce. In addition, he is pursuing a Doctor of Musical Arts degree in Percussion Performance at the University of Texas at Austin. During his time at UT-Austin he was the instructor of The University of Texas Longhorn Drum Line and the Longhorn Band Percussion Ensemble. He has also earned a Master’s Degree in Percussion Performance from Colorado State University. While at CSU he taught private percussion lessons to undergraduates, coached the CSU Percussion Ensemble, and served as the instructor for the Colorado State University Ram Drum Line.
Andrew has also earned degrees in both Music Education and Music Performance from Texas A&M University-Commerce.
He is currently a Front Ensemble Technician for The Cavaliers Drum & Bugle Corps. In addition to teaching The Cavaliers, Andrew was a Front Ensemble Technician for the Phantom Regiment Drum and Bugle Corps from 2012 to 2014. Andrew was a member of the Phantom Regiment Drum and Bugle Corps from 2008 (DCI Champions-Fred E. Sanford High Percussion Award) through 2009.
He has been a soloist with The University of Texas Wind Ensemble, under the direction of Jerry Junkin; the Interlochen Would Youth Wind Symphony; the Colorado State University Wind Ensemble; the Texas A&M University-Commerce Percussion Ensemble; and the Colorado State University Percussion Ensemble. He has also performed at five Percussive Arts Society International Conventions (PASIC) as a soloist and ensemble musician. In addition, Andrew was the President of the Texas A&M University-Commerce Percussion Club from 2007 through 2012.
Andrew is a member of the Percussive Arts Society and Phi Kappa Lambda, and was the recent recipient of the Annie Barnhart Giles Centennial Endowed Presidential Scholarship through the Butler School of Music. He has studied with Dr. Tom Burritt, Tony Edwards, Dr. Eric Hollenbeck, Dr. Brian Zator, Paul Rennick, Sandi Rennick, and Shilo Stroman.
Andrew is a proud artist and clinician for Innovative Percussion sticks and mallets and Pearl/Adams musical instruments.
About Erick Eckstro
Erick Eckstrom will be starting his third year as a front ensemble technician at The Cavaliers. Erick is also currently serving as a percussionist in the Academy Winds Chamber Ensemble. This ensemble is a part of the Air Force bands and is located in Colorado Springs, Colo.
While pursuing a master’s degree in Percussion Performance at Indiana University Jacob’s School of Music, Erick taught the front ensembles at Center Grove High School and Ben Davis High School in Indianapolis, Ind. While studying music education at the University of Illinois, Erick was able to participate in Gateway Indoor, Santa Clara Vanguard, and The Cavaliers.
As a versatile drummer and percussionist, Erick has performed in many settings, including orchestral, world/folkloric percussion, big band, marching, and chamber ensembles. Erick has been fortunate enough to study percussion with some of the best percussion educators including Dean Radzik, Joe Roach, Rob Pastor, Alan Miller, Brian Tinkle, Michael McIntosh, Ricardo Flores, William Moersch, Kevin Bobo, John Tafoya, Steve Houghton, and Michael Spiro.
As an active educator in the Chicago-land area, Erick has taught at Wheeling High School, Prospect High School, Elk Grove High School, Buffalo Grove High School, Cooper Middle School, Holmes Middle School, London Middle School, and Green Thunder Percussion. He also taught the front ensemble at the Academy in 2014 and 2015 and is looking forward to another great season!
About Tom McGille
Tom McGillen works as a consultant specializing in amplification and electronics and their application in the modern marching ensemble. His consulting business Marching Audio works with many notable band programs and percussion sections including Blue Springs (Mo.), Broken Arrow (Okla.), Carmel (Ind.), Cedar Ridge (Texas), Flower Mound (Texas), Hebron (Texas), Homestead (Ind.), Owasso (Okla.), Ronald Reagan (Texas), Union (Okla.), and William Mason (Ohio) high schools, among many others.
He has presented clinics at the Percussive Arts Society International Convention, the Texas Band Master's Association Convention, Music for All Summer Symposium, and other state Music Conventions.
Mr. McGillen has served as the audio and electronics specialist for The Cavaliers Drum & Bugle Corps since 2010. He has been involved in a similar capacity for both the Music City Mystique and Gateway World Class Independent WGI Percussion Ensembles. Tom has also assisted with a number of collegiate marching band's sound system designs.
Before pursuing consulting full time, Mr. McGillen was the adjunct professor of percussion at the University of Tulsa and served as the District Percussion Specialist and a private teacher for the Broken Arrow Public Schools.
Tom holds a bachelor's degree in Music Education and a master's degree in Percussion Performance from Oklahoma State University. He is an educational artist for Innovative Percussion Inc, Evans Drum Heads, Planet Waves Cables, and he is a Yamaha Performing Artist
About Jason Palme
Jason Palmer is one of the freshest personalities in the pageantry arts and serves as music designer, drill and body movement designer, as well set designer for drama productions and the pageantry arts across the country.
Palmer’s goal is to create beautiful works of art musically, visually, and conceptually. Palmer teaches visual arts at Mt. Juliet High School in Mt. Juliet, Tenn., and is the percussion director as well at Mt. Juliet High School.
Other groups that he has been involved with include: The Cavaliers Drum & Bugle Corps (2008-present), United States Marine Drum and Bugle Corps winter drumline, Glassmen Drum Corps Co-Visual Caption head (2009-2010); Colts Drum and Bugle Corps Visual Caption head (2007); Madison Scouts Drum and Bugle Corps (2004-2006); Santa Clara Vanguard Drum and Bugle Corps, Phantom Regiment Drum and Bugle Corps; Music City Mystique; Gateway Indoor Percussion Ensemble; Middle Tennessee State University Drumline and percussion ensemble; University of Northern Alabama Drumline; and he was previously director of percussion of Fred J. Page High School (2001-2010).
About The Cavaliers
Founded in 1948 from Boy Scout Troop 111, The Cavaliers are one of the most successful drum and bugle corps in history, winning 20 national championships, including seven Drum Corps International World Championships since 1992.
The Cavaliers provide a variety of educational and performance programs for young people, including GearWORKS, Cavaliers Indoor Percussion, and Chromium Winds. The organization delivers life-changing experiences that go beyond music and performing arts to build personal accountability, excellence, teamwork, and camaraderie.
The Cavaliers Drum & Bugle Corps is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization sponsored by The Village of Rosemont, Illinois.